Functions for getting, splitting, and labeling data, as well as generic transforms

Get, split, and label

For most data source creation we need functions to get a list of items, split them in to train/valid sets, and label them. fastai provides functions to make each of these steps easy (especially when combined with


First we'll look at functions that get a list of items (generally file names).

We'll use tiny MNIST (a subset of MNIST with just two classes, 7s and 3s) for our examples/tests throughout this page.

path = untar_data(URLs.MNIST_TINY)
(#2) [Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/3')]


get_files(path, extensions=None, recurse=True, folders=None, followlinks=True)

Get all the files in path with optional extensions, optionally with recurse, only in folders, if specified.

This is the most general way to grab a bunch of file names from disk. If you pass extensions (including the .) then returned file names are filtered by that list. Only those files directly in path are included, unless you pass recurse, in which case all child folders are also searched recursively. folders is an optional list of directories to limit the search to.

t3 = get_files(path/'train'/'3', extensions='.png', recurse=False)
t7 = get_files(path/'train'/'7', extensions='.png', recurse=False)
t  = get_files(path/'train', extensions='.png', recurse=True)
test_eq(len(t), len(t3)+len(t7))
test_eq(len(get_files(path/'train'/'3', extensions='.jpg', recurse=False)),0)
test_eq(len(t), len(get_files(path, extensions='.png', recurse=True, folders='train')))
(#709) [Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/819.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/7769.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/8107.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/7054.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/9669.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/8130.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/7731.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/8168.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/7781.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/8559.png')...]

It's often useful to be able to create functions with customized behavior. generally uses functions named as CamelCase verbs ending in er to create these functions. FileGetter is a simple example of such a function creator.


FileGetter(suf='', extensions=None, recurse=True, folders=None)

Create get_files partial function that searches path suffix suf, only in folders, if specified, and passes along args

fpng = FileGetter(extensions='.png', recurse=False)
test_eq(len(t7), len(fpng(path/'train'/'7')))
test_eq(len(t), len(fpng(path/'train', recurse=True)))
fpng_r = FileGetter(extensions='.png', recurse=True)
test_eq(len(t), len(fpng_r(path/'train')))


get_image_files(path, recurse=True, folders=None)

Get image files in path recursively, only in folders, if specified.

This is simply get_files called with a list of standard image extensions.

test_eq(len(t), len(get_image_files(path, recurse=True, folders='train')))


ImageGetter(suf='', recurse=True, folders=None)

Create get_image_files partial that searches suffix suf and passes along kwargs, only in folders, if specified

Same as FileGetter, but for image extensions.

test_eq(len(get_files(path/'train', extensions='.png', recurse=True, folders='3')),
        len(ImageGetter(   'train',                    recurse=True, folders='3')(path)))


get_text_files(path, recurse=True, folders=None)

Get text files in path recursively, only in folders, if specified.

class ItemGetter[source]

ItemGetter(self, i) :: ItemTransform

Creates a proper transform that applies itemgetter(i) (even on a tuple)

test_eq(ItemGetter(1)((1,2,3)),  2)
test_eq(ItemGetter(1)(L(1,2,3)), 2)
test_eq(ItemGetter(1)([1,2,3]),  2)
test_eq(ItemGetter(1)(np.array([1,2,3])),  2)

class AttrGetter[source]

AttrGetter(self, nm, default=None) :: ItemTransform

Creates a proper transform that applies attrgetter(nm) (even on a tuple)

test_eq(AttrGetter('shape')(torch.randn([4,5])), [4,5])
test_eq(AttrGetter('shape', [0])([4,5]), [0])


The next set of functions are used to split data into training and validation sets. The functions return two lists - a list of indices or masks for each of training and validation sets.


RandomSplitter(valid_pct=0.2, seed=None)

Create function that splits items between train/val with valid_pct randomly.

def _test_splitter(f, items=None):
    "A basic set of condition a splitter must pass"
    items = ifnone(items, range_of(30))
    trn,val = f(items)
    assert 0<len(trn)<len(items)
    assert all(o not in val for o in trn)
    test_eq(len(trn), len(items)-len(val))
    # test random seed consistency
    test_eq(f(items)[0], trn)
    return trn, val
((#24) [10,18,16,23,28,26,20,7,21,22...], (#6) [12,0,6,25,8,15])

Use scikit-learn train_test_split. This allow to split items in a stratified fashion (uniformely according to the ‘labels‘ distribution)


TrainTestSplitter(test_size=0.2, random_state=None, stratify=None, train_size=None, shuffle=True)

Split items into random train and test subsets using sklearn train_test_split utility.

src = list(range(30))
labels = [0] * 20 + [1] * 10
test_size = 0.2

f = TrainTestSplitter(test_size=test_size, random_state=42, stratify=labels)
trn,val = _test_splitter(f, items=src)

# test labels distribution consistency
# there should be test_size % of zeroes and ones respectively in the validation set
test_eq(len([t for t in val if t < 20]) / 20, test_size)
test_eq(len([t for t in val if t > 20]) / 10, test_size)



Split items so that val_idx are in the validation set and the others in the training set

items = 'a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j'.split(',')  #to make obvious that splits indexes and not items.
splitter = IndexSplitter([3,7,9])

_test_splitter(splitter, items)


EndSplitter(valid_pct=0.2, valid_last=True)

Create function that splits items between train/val with valid_pct at the end if valid_last else at the start. Useful for ordered data.

items = range_of(10)

splitter_last = EndSplitter(valid_last=True)
test_eq(splitter_last(items), ([0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7], [8,9]))

splitter_start = EndSplitter(valid_last=False)
test_eq(splitter_start(items), ([2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9], [0,1]))


GrandparentSplitter(train_name='train', valid_name='valid')

Split items from the grand parent folder names (train_name and valid_name).

fnames = [path/'train/3/9932.png', path/'valid/7/7189.png', 
          path/'valid/7/7320.png', path/'train/7/9833.png',  
          path/'train/3/7666.png', path/'valid/3/925.png',
          path/'train/7/724.png', path/'valid/3/93055.png']
splitter = GrandparentSplitter()
_test_splitter(splitter, items=fnames)
fnames2 = fnames + [path/'test/3/4256.png', path/'test/7/2345.png', path/'valid/7/6467.png']
splitter = GrandparentSplitter(train_name=('train', 'valid'), valid_name='test')
_test_splitter(splitter, items=fnames2)



Split items by result of func (True for validation, False for training set).

splitter = FuncSplitter(lambda o: Path(o) == 'valid')
_test_splitter(splitter, fnames)



Split items depending on the value of mask.

items = list(range(6))
splitter = MaskSplitter([True,False,False,True,False,True])
_test_splitter(splitter, items)



Split items by providing file fname (contains names of valid items separated by newline).

with tempfile.TemporaryDirectory() as d:
    fname = Path(d)/'valid.txt'
    fname.write_text('\n'.join([Path(fnames[i]).name for i in [1,3,4]]))
    splitter = FileSplitter(fname)
    _test_splitter(splitter, fnames)



Split items (supposed to be a dataframe) by value in col

df = pd.DataFrame({'a': [0,1,2,3,4], 'b': [True,False,True,True,False]})
splits = ColSplitter('b')(df)
test_eq(splits, [[1,4], [0,2,3]])
#Works with strings or index
splits = ColSplitter(1)(df)
test_eq(splits, [[1,4], [0,2,3]])
# does not get confused if the type of 'is_valid' is integer, but it meant to be a yes/no
df = pd.DataFrame({'a': [0,1,2,3,4], 'is_valid': [1,0,1,1,0]})
splits_by_int = ColSplitter('is_valid')(df)
test_eq(splits_by_int, [[1,4], [0,2,3]])


RandomSubsetSplitter(train_sz, valid_sz, seed=None)

Take randoms subsets of splits with train_sz and valid_sz

items = list(range(100))
valid_idx = list(np.arange(70,100))
splitter = RandomSubsetSplitter(0.3, 0.1)
splits = RandomSubsetSplitter(0.3, 0.1)(items)
test_eq(len(splits[0]), 30)
test_eq(len(splits[1]), 10)


The final set of functions is used to label a single item of data.



Label item with the parent folder name.

Note that parent_label doesn't have anything customize, so it doesn't return a function - you can just use it directly.

test_eq(parent_label(fnames[0]), '3')
test_eq(parent_label("fastai_dev/dev/data/mnist_tiny/train/3/9932.png"), '3')
[parent_label(o) for o in fnames]
['3', '7', '7', '7', '3', '3', '7', '3']

class RegexLabeller[source]

RegexLabeller(pat, match=False)

Label item with regex pat.

RegexLabeller is a very flexible function since it handles any regex search of the stringified item. Pass match=True to use re.match (i.e. check only start of string), or otherwise (default).

For instance, here's an example the replicates the previous parent_label results.

f = RegexLabeller(fr'{posixpath.sep}(\d){posixpath.sep}')
test_eq(f(fnames[0]), '3')
[f(o) for o in fnames]
['3', '7', '7', '7', '3', '3', '7', '3']
import posixpath
f = RegexLabeller(fr'{posixpath.sep}(\d){posixpath.sep}')
a1 = Path(fnames[0]).as_posix()
test_eq(f(a1), '3')
[f(o) for o in fnames]
['3', '7', '7', '7', '3', '3', '7', '3']
f = RegexLabeller(r'(\d*)', match=True)
test_eq(f(fnames[0].name), '9932')

class ColReader[source]

ColReader(self, cols, pref='', suff='', label_delim=None) :: DisplayedTransform

Read cols in row with potential pref and suff

cols can be a list of column names or a list of indices (or a mix of both). If label_delim is passed, the result is split using it.

df = pd.DataFrame({'a': 'a b c d'.split(), 'b': ['1 2', '0', '', '1 2 3']})
f = ColReader('a', pref='0', suff='1')
test_eq([f(o) for o in df.itertuples()], '0a1 0b1 0c1 0d1'.split())

f = ColReader('b', label_delim=' ')
test_eq([f(o) for o in df.itertuples()], [['1', '2'], ['0'], [], ['1', '2', '3']])

df['a1'] = df['a']
f = ColReader(['a', 'a1'], pref='0', suff='1')
test_eq([f(o) for o in df.itertuples()], [L('0a1', '0a1'), L('0b1', '0b1'), L('0c1', '0c1'), L('0d1', '0d1')])

df = pd.DataFrame({'a': [L(0,1), L(2,3,4), L(5,6,7)]})
f = ColReader('a')
test_eq([f(o) for o in df.itertuples()], [L(0,1), L(2,3,4), L(5,6,7)])

df['name'] = df['a']
f = ColReader('name')
test_eq([f(df.iloc[0,:])], [L(0,1)])

df['mask'] = df['a']
f = ColReader('mask')
test_eq([f(o) for o in df.itertuples()], [L(0,1), L(2,3,4), L(5,6,7)])
test_eq([f(df.iloc[0,:])], [L(0,1)])

class CategoryMap[source]

CategoryMap(col, sort=True, add_na=False, strict=False) :: CollBase

Collection of categories with the reverse mapping in o2i

t = CategoryMap([4,2,3,4])
test_eq(t, [2,3,4])
test_eq(t.o2i, {2:0,3:1,4:2})
test_eq(t.map_objs([2,3]), [0,1])
test_eq(t.map_ids([0,1]), [2,3])
test_fail(lambda: t.o2i['unseen label'])
t = CategoryMap([4,2,3,4], add_na=True)
test_eq(t, ['#na#',2,3,4])
test_eq(t.o2i, {'#na#':0,2:1,3:2,4:3})
t = CategoryMap(pd.Series([4,2,3,4]), sort=False)
test_eq(t, [4,2,3])
test_eq(t.o2i, {4:0,2:1,3:2})
col = pd.Series(pd.Categorical(['M','H','L','M'], categories=['H','M','L'], ordered=True))
t = CategoryMap(col)
test_eq(t, ['H','M','L'])
test_eq(t.o2i, {'H':0,'M':1,'L':2})
col = pd.Series(pd.Categorical(['M','H','M'], categories=['H','M','L'], ordered=True))
t = CategoryMap(col, strict=True)
test_eq(t, ['H','M'])
test_eq(t.o2i, {'H':0,'M':1})

class Categorize[source]

Categorize(self, vocab=None, sort=True, add_na=False) :: DisplayedTransform

Reversible transform of category string to vocab id

class Category[source]

Category() :: str

str(object='') -> str str(bytes_or_buffer[, encoding[, errors]]) -> str

Create a new string object from the given object. If encoding or errors is specified, then the object must expose a data buffer that will be decoded using the given encoding and error handler. Otherwise, returns the result of object.str() (if defined) or repr(object). encoding defaults to sys.getdefaultencoding(). errors defaults to 'strict'.

cat = Categorize()
tds = Datasets(['cat', 'dog', 'cat'], tfms=[cat])
test_eq(cat.vocab, ['cat', 'dog'])
test_eq(cat('cat'), 0)
test_eq(cat.decode(1), 'dog')
test_stdout(lambda: show_at(tds,2), 'cat')
test_fail(lambda: cat('bird'))
cat = Categorize(add_na=True)
tds = Datasets(['cat', 'dog', 'cat'], tfms=[cat])
test_eq(cat.vocab, ['#na#', 'cat', 'dog'])
test_eq(cat('cat'), 1)
test_eq(cat.decode(2), 'dog')
test_stdout(lambda: show_at(tds,2), 'cat')
cat = Categorize(vocab=['dog', 'cat'], sort=False, add_na=True)
tds = Datasets(['cat', 'dog', 'cat'], tfms=[cat])
test_eq(cat.vocab, ['#na#', 'dog', 'cat'])
test_eq(cat('dog'), 1)
test_eq(cat.decode(2), 'cat')
test_stdout(lambda: show_at(tds,2), 'cat')

class MultiCategorize[source]

MultiCategorize(self, vocab=None, add_na=False) :: Categorize

Reversible transform of multi-category strings to vocab id

class MultiCategory[source]

MultiCategory(items=None, *rest, use_list=False, match=None) :: L

Behaves like a list of items but can also index with list of indices or masks

cat = MultiCategorize()
tds = Datasets([['b', 'c'], ['a'], ['a', 'c'], []], tfms=[cat])
test_eq(tds[3][0], TensorMultiCategory([]))
test_eq(cat.vocab, ['a', 'b', 'c'])
test_eq(cat(['a', 'c']), tensor([0,2]))
test_eq(cat([]), tensor([]))
test_eq(cat.decode([1]), ['b'])
test_eq(cat.decode([0,2]), ['a', 'c'])
test_stdout(lambda: show_at(tds,2), 'a;c')

# if vocab supplied, ensure it maintains its order (i.e., it doesn't sort)
cat = MultiCategorize(vocab=['z', 'y', 'x'])
test_eq(cat.vocab, ['z','y','x'])

test_fail(lambda: cat('bird'))

class OneHotEncode[source]

OneHotEncode(self, c=None) :: DisplayedTransform

One-hot encodes targets

Works in conjunction with MultiCategorize or on its own if you have one-hot encoded targets (pass a vocab for decoding and do_encode=False in this case)

_tfm = OneHotEncode(c=3)
test_eq(_tfm([0,2]), tensor([1.,0,1]))
test_eq(_tfm.decode(tensor([0,1,1])), [1,2])
tds = Datasets([['b', 'c'], ['a'], ['a', 'c'], []], [[MultiCategorize(), OneHotEncode()]])
test_eq(tds[1], [tensor([1.,0,0])])
test_eq(tds[3], [tensor([0.,0,0])])
test_eq(tds.decode([tensor([False, True, True])]), [['b','c']])
test_eq(type(tds[1][0]), TensorMultiCategory)
test_stdout(lambda: show_at(tds,2), 'a;c')

class EncodedMultiCategorize[source]

EncodedMultiCategorize(self, vocab) :: Categorize

Transform of one-hot encoded multi-category that decodes with vocab

_tfm = EncodedMultiCategorize(vocab=['a', 'b', 'c'])
test_eq(_tfm([1,0,1]), tensor([1., 0., 1.]))
test_eq(type(_tfm([1,0,1])), TensorMultiCategory)
test_eq(_tfm.decode(tensor([False, True, True])), ['b','c'])

_tfm2 = EncodedMultiCategorize(vocab=['c', 'b', 'a'])
test_eq(_tfm2.vocab, ['c', 'b', 'a'])

class RegressionSetup[source]

RegressionSetup(self, c=None) :: DisplayedTransform

Transform that floatifies targets

_tfm = RegressionSetup()
dsets = Datasets([0, 1, 2], RegressionSetup)
test_eq(dsets.c, 1)
test_eq_type(dsets[0], (tensor(0.),))

dsets = Datasets([[0, 1, 2], [3,4,5]], RegressionSetup)
test_eq(dsets.c, 3)
test_eq_type(dsets[0], (tensor([0.,1.,2.]),))



End-to-end dataset example with MNIST

Let's show how to use those functions to grab the mnist dataset in a Datasets. First we grab all the images.

path = untar_data(URLs.MNIST_TINY)
items = get_image_files(path)

Then we split between train and validation depending on the folder.

splitter = GrandparentSplitter()
splits = splitter(items)
train,valid = (items[i] for i in splits)
((#3) [Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/819.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/7769.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/train/7/8107.png')],
 (#3) [Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/valid/7/7320.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/valid/7/7544.png'),Path('/home/jovyan/.fastai/data/mnist_tiny/valid/7/9015.png')])

Our inputs are images that we open and convert to tensors, our targets are labeled depending on the parent directory and are categories.

from PIL import Image
def open_img(fn:Path): return
def img2tensor(im:Image.Image): return TensorImage(array(im)[None])

tfms = [[open_img, img2tensor],
        [parent_label, Categorize()]]
train_ds = Datasets(train, tfms)
x,y = train_ds[3]
xd,yd = decode_at(train_ds,3)
ax = show_at(train_ds, 3, cmap="Greys", figsize=(1,1))
assert ax.title.get_text() in ('3','7')

class ToTensor[source]

ToTensor(self, enc=None, dec=None, split_idx=None, order=None) :: Transform

Convert item to appropriate tensor class

class IntToFloatTensor[source]

IntToFloatTensor(self, div=255.0, div_mask=1) :: DisplayedTransform

Transform image to float tensor, optionally dividing by 255 (e.g. for images).

t = (TensorImage(tensor(1)),tensor(2).long(),TensorMask(tensor(3)))
tfm = IntToFloatTensor()
ft = tfm(t)
test_eq(ft, [1./255, 2, 3])
test_eq(type(ft[0]), TensorImage)
test_eq(type(ft[2]), TensorMask)


broadcast_vec(dim, ndim, *t, cuda=True)

Make a vector broadcastable over dim (out of ndim total) by prepending and appending unit axes

class Normalize[source]

Normalize(self, mean=None, std=None, axes=(0, 2, 3)) :: DisplayedTransform

Normalize/denorm batch of TensorImage

mean,std = [0.5]*3,[0.5]*3
mean,std = broadcast_vec(1, 4, mean, std)
batch_tfms = [IntToFloatTensor(), Normalize.from_stats(mean,std)]
tdl = TfmdDL(train_ds, after_batch=batch_tfms, bs=4, device=default_device())
x,y  = tdl.one_batch()
xd,yd = tdl.decode((x,y))

test_eq(x.type(), 'torch.cuda.FloatTensor' if default_device().type=='cuda' else 'torch.FloatTensor')
test_eq(xd.type(), 'torch.LongTensor')
test_eq(type(x), TensorImage)
test_eq(type(y), TensorCategory)
assert x.mean()<0.0
assert x.std()>0.5
assert 0<xd.float().mean()/255.<1
assert 0<xd.float().std()/255.<0.5
from import *